Wednesday, April 27, 2016

Don't Leave Your Heirs to Make Decisions About Your Legacy - Have a Plan

We are left to wonder how Prince would have wanted his estate / legacy divided?  Will his wishes be met?  Read the article published by wealthmanagement.com, a division of Trust and Estates Magazine: 

Friday, April 22, 2016

Parents, Grandparents and Disabled Children - Coordinated Planning

The Census Bureau tells us that 1 in every 6 families now has a disabled person within their extended family.  This means there are an increasing number of disabled adults who will become orphans as their parents age and pass. 

We suggest parents with a disabled child create a formal care plan to prepare for the time when they are no longer able to care for their disabled child.  This plan should address the particular needs of the child, the manner for the delivery of care and how the child’s care needs might be paid for over the expected lifetime of the child. 

These plans are an essential component of an estate plan.  In our experience they are a lot of work, both emotionally and in terms of time and commitment. The care plan should include the child’s adult siblings and grandparents, as these plans work most effectively when they are inter-generational, comprehensive and have coordinated planning goals, especially as to public benefits planning. 

For instance, if grandparents wish to remember a disabled grandchild in their Wills and should leave a large bequest for the benefit of a disabled grandchild who is receiving publicly funded medical care, the result is the likely termination of the grandchild’s essential public health care benefits.  Not a good result and certainly not what the grandparent’s envisioned when making their estate plan.

However, grandparents (and other family members, too) in consultation with the child’s parents, could leave a bequest  for the benefit of a special needs grandchild in a Special Needs Trust without the loss of the grandchild’s medical benefits.

In most states, Nevada included, a disabled person can have only $2,000 in assets and still qualify for Medicaid or Social Security Supplemental Security Income (SSI).  These programs, while helpful, and often essential, rarely provide the level of care needed by a disabled person.  With a Special Needs Trust,  the extended family can leave gifts that effectively enhance the quality of life for their special needs child or grandchild and still preserve basic public benefits.

If you are a parent, grandparent, or a sibling of a special needs brother or sister, be sure that your family has coordinated their planning for the preservation of basic public benefits.  Usually, one Special Needs Trust is sufficient for the entire family of a disabled individual.

At Jeffrey Burr, our experienced attorneys have helped many families with the complexities of comprehensive planning for special needs beneficiaries.



Tuesday, April 12, 2016

Holdback When Making Trust Distributions to Beneficiaries

Upon the death of a person who created a revocable or living trust the trust agreement typically provides for distributions of the Trust assets among various beneficiaries.  A beneficiary of a Trust understandably wants his or her inheritance as soon as possible.  Trustees also desire to complete the administration of the Trust, including distributions to the beneficiaries, as quickly as possible after the period for filing creditor claims has expired.  The Trustee may also be a beneficiary or related to the Trust beneficiaries and these interesting “family dynamics” can put additional pressure on a Trustee to distribute the Trust quickly.  Regardless of all these facts and competing interests for a quick termination of the Trust, it is good practice for a Trustee to retain a certain amount of the Trust monies from the final distribution to the beneficiaries. This retention is often called a “holdback.” 

The amount of the holdback depends on the particular facts of each case. Oftentimes there is a final income tax return (Form 1040) of the decedent due the following calendar year that cannot be prepared and filed until after January 31 of the following year.  For example, a person dies on June 1, 2016 with a Trust.  The Successor Trustee is responsible for filing the deceased person’s final Form 1040 (or a state tax return if state income tax is involved) regarding any taxable income of the decedent from January 1, 2016 to the date of death.  This final income tax return is due on or before April 15, 2017, and should be filed by the Trustee or Executor.  However, the decedent’s forms 1099s, W-2s, W-4s, Schedule K-1s, et cetera for the 2016 calendar year will not be issued by the decedent’s employer or other sources of income until on or about January 31, 2017.  And realistically the tax preparer may not complete the income tax return until March or April, depending on their workload.  Accordingly, the Trustee needs to holdback a sufficient sum to pay the fees of the tax preparer and for payment of any income tax that may be due on the decedent’s final income tax return. 

Additionally, the IRS has 3 years from the filing date of a tax return to audit the return.  If there is a likelihood of an audit of the 2016 return or the 2 previous income tax returns of the decedent, there may be additional tax, penalties and interest owed.  If this occurs there will be accountant and attorney fees incurred in an audit.  Additional monies must be held back in the likelihood of an audit.  It is common for a Trustee to retain a holdback until the 3 year audit period has expired, after which the remaining holdback is distributed to the beneficiaries.

Holdbacks are also utilized when a federal estate tax return is filed. (Estate tax returns are required if the estate value is above $5.45 million for a single deceased individual or up to $10.9 million for married deceased taxpayers).


The most important reason for a holdback is that a Trustee is personally liable for any tax due to the extent that Trust assets were under the Trustee’s control, even if the Trust assets have already been distributed to the beneficiaries.  Accordingly, a Successor Trustee should always consult a knowledgeable trust attorney before making distributions.  At Jeffrey Burr, Ltd., our trust administration attorneys have assisted numerous individual and corporate Trustees in performing their duties.   

John R. Mugan, Esq. 
Trust Administration Attorney 


Wednesday, March 30, 2016

Mortgaged Real Estate and Trusts

It is common for a person (hereinafter the “trustor”) to create a living trust to avoid the expense and time of probate.  The creation of the trust is not the sole step in avoiding the probate process – the trust must be “funded”.  “Funding” a trust is the process of the trustor conveying the title of his or her property into the name of the trust.  For real property, this process requires the preparation, execution, and recordation of a deed.  Some initially fear that their mortgaged real property cannot be conveyed to their trusts.  The fear is based upon the “due-on-sale” clause contained in the mortgage agreement.  Fortunately, federal law has brought clarity to the issue of mortgaged property and trusts.  What is known as the Garn St. Germain Act prevents a lender from exercising its “due-on-sale” clause option to take action for “a transfer to an inter-vivos [living] trust in which the borrower is and remains a beneficiary”.  There are a few limitations with regard to what type of dwelling would fall under this exemption, but for the person who has a single family residence or condominium such relief is applicable.

If you should have any questions regarding real property and trusts or want to discuss further, feel free to contact the law firm of Jeffrey Burr for assistance.


Monday, March 21, 2016

AFRs for April announced

The Section 7520 rate is 1.8%
April AFRs Annual Semi-annual Quarterly Monthly
are as follows
Short-term 0.70% 0.70% 0.70% 0.70%
Mid-term 1.45% 1.44% 1.44% 1.44%
Long-term 2.25% 2.24% 2.23% 2.23%

Wednesday, March 16, 2016

Form 8971: Consistent Basis Reporting For Inherited Property

Per recent changes in the law, Executors may have additional reporting obligations. Executors may now be required to report the basis of estate assets to the IRS and the beneficiaries of the estate by filing the Form 8971. Executors will need to complete and file the Form 8971 for estates that are required to file an estate tax return after July 31, 2015. Estate tax returns are generally only required when the estate value is more than $5,430,000 in 2015 and $5,450,000 in 2016. (Currently it is unclear whether the Form 8971 will be required for estates filing an estate tax return only to elect “portability”, although it does not appear the Form 8971 will be required in those cases.)

Although the IRS has delayed the first deadline for filing the Form 8971, the current deadline is March 31, 2016.

For additional information or if you need assistance in preparing the Form 8971, feel free to contact the attorneys at JEFFREY BURR.



Tuesday, March 1, 2016

Nearly 75% of survey respondents reported they did not have an advance medical directive in a 2014 study conducted by the American Journal of Preventive Medicine.  An advance medical directive may be a general power of attorney for healthcare matters, a directive to physicians, a living will, or any combination of those – in essence any document or documents which appoint an agent to make healthcare related decisions for you if you are not able to make them for yourself and gives instruction to that agent about what healthcare decisions you would make for yourself if you were able.

The main reason why the respondents without these documents stated they did not have advance medical directives in place was a “lack of awareness.”  So, what were they not aware of? 

In Nevada, the Power of Attorney for Healthcare allows you to do the following:
·         1. Nominate an agent (and alternate agents) to act on your behalf if you are unable to;
·         2. Outlines your wishes regarding medical treatment and end of life decisions; and
·         3. Nominates a person to serve as a guardian over you should the need arise.

The Directive to Physicians is a statement of your desires regarding end of life decisions directed to your physician should the time come where your agent must make an end of life decision on your behalf.

Having these documents in place can help avoid situations like Aden Hailu’s, discussed in a previous blog by Michael D. Lum, Esq., where families and physicians are gridlocked and unable to make end of life decisions for a loved one.


Contact an attorney at the law offices of JEFFREY BURR to discuss any questions you may have about advance health care directives.